Appendix 1          





  1. 1. 
Richardson CA, Bullock MI (1986).Changes in Muscle Activity during Fast, Alternating Movements of the Knee.  Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitative Medicine 18(2):51-58 Movement (phasic)muscles dominate in fast alternating gravity free (NWB) exercise.

VMO worked tonically

  1. 2. 
Richardson CA (1987).  Investigations into the optimal approach to exercise for the knee musculature.  PhD thesis, University of Queensland.
  1. 3. 
Richardson CA (1987) Atrophy of vastus medialis in patello-femoral pain syndrome.  In: Proceedings of the Tenth international Congress of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy, Sydney, pp 400-403. In patella pain, VMO & other vasti  showed tonic to phasic shift         [see APPENDIX 3]
  1. 4.
Lindsay D, Dearness J, Richardson C, Chapman A, Cuskelly G (1990)Electrotherapy survey of Brisbane private practice  Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 36(4):249-255. Electrotherapy use
  1. 5. 
Richardson CA, Toppenberg R, Jull G (1990).  An initial evaluation of some abdominal exercises for their ability to provide stabilisation for lumbar spine.  Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 36(1):6-11. Lumbo-pelvic stabilisation
  1. 6.
De Domenico G, Richardson C, McMeekin J, Hadley J, Foord I (1990).  Clinical standards for the use of Electrophysical Agents.  Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 36(1):39-52. Electrotherapy use
  1. 7.
Ng G, Richardson CA (1990).  The effects of training on triceps surae by progressive speed loading.  Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 6(2):77-84. Speed exercise -increased strength of gastrocnemius, weakness in  soleus
  1. 8. 
Richardson C, Jull G, Toppenberg R, Comerford M (1991).  Techniques for active stabilisation for spinal protection:  A pilot study.  Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 38(2):105-112. Lumbo-pelvic stabilisation
  1. 9.
Hides JA, Cooper DH, Jull GA, Richardson CA, Stokes MJ (1991). Diagnostic ultrasound imaging in the assessment of normal symmetry of the lumbar multifidus muscle. Proceedings of the 7th Biennial Conference of the MPAA, Blue Mountains, 83-88. J.Hides- beginning to use real-time ultrasound in assessment of CSA of the lumbar multifidus muscle
  1. 10. 
Hodges PW, Richardson CA (1993).  The Influence of Isometric Hip Adduction in Quadriceps femoris activity.  Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 25:57-62. In weightbearing, adduction contractions increased VMO more than other quads.
  1. 11. 
Wohlfahrt DA, Jull GA, Richardson CA (1993).  An initial investigation into the relationship between the dynamic and static function of the abdominal muscles.  Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 39(1):9-13. Lumbo-pelvic stabilisation
  1. 12. 
Jull G, Richardson C, Toppenberg R, Comerford M, Bui B (1993).  Towards a measurement of Active Muscle Control for Lumbar Stabilisation.  Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 39(3):187-193. Lumbo-pelvic stabilisation

-   assessment

  1. 13. 
Laakso L, Richardson CA, Crammond T (1993).  Factors affecting low level laser therapy.  Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 39(2):95-99. Electrotherapy use
  1. 14. 
Laakso L, Richardson CA, Crammond T (1993).  Quality of Light:  Is laser necessary for effective photobiostimulation?  Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 39(2) 87-92. Electrotherapy use
  1. 15. 
Ng JK-F, Richardson CA (1994). EMG study of erector spinae and multifidus in two isometric back extension exercises. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 40: 115-121. Lumbo-pelvic stabilisation
  1. 16. 
Hides JA, Richardson CA, Jull GA, Davies SE (1995).  Ultrasound imaging in rehabilitation.  Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 41(3):187-193. Introduction of real time ultrasound imaging
  1. 17. 
Hides JA, Richardson CA, Jull GA (1995).  Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography of the lumbar multifidus muscle: comparison of two different modalities.  Spine 20(17):54-58. Innovation by J.Hides - using  real-time ultrasound as an assessment/feedback  tool in Physiotherapy
  1. 18. 
Hodges PW, Kippers V, Richardson CA (1995).  Validation of a technique for accurate fine-wire electrode placement into posterior gluteus medius using real-time ultrasound guidance.  Electromyography and Clinical Neurophysiology 37:39-47. Use of fine wire EMG electrodes to investigate deep muscles- in preparation to investigations on TrA
  1. 19. 
Hodges PW, Richardson CA (1995).  Influence of incorrect anticipation of voluntary limb movement on associated stabilisation of the lumbar spine.  Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise (Supplement) 27:5 – 6. Lumbo-pelvic stabilisation
  1. 20. 
Hodges PW, Richardson CA (1995).  Potential risk of low back injury with limb movement at varying  speeds with special reference to muscular stabilisation of the spine.  Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 4:262. Lumbo-pelvic stabilisation
  1. 21. 
Ng JK-F, Richardson CA (1995). EMG study of erector spinae and multifidus in two isometric back extension exercises. In Sharpe M (Ed.): Australian Journal of Physiotherapy Monograph No. 1. The Lumbar Spine: Stabilisation Training and the Lumbar Motion Segment. Melbourne: Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, pp. 43-50.


Lumbo-pelvic stabilisation
  1. 22.   
Richardson CA, Jull GA (1995).  Muscle Control - Pain control:  What exercises would you prescribe?  Manual Therapy 1(1):2-10. Lumbo-pelvic stabilisation
  1. 23.   
Richardson CA, Jull GA (1995).  An historical perspective on the development of clinical techniques to evaluate and treat the active stabilising system of the lumbar spine.  Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, Monograph 1:5-13. Lumbo-pelvic stabilisation
  1. 24. 
Hides JA, Richardson CA, Jull GA (1995). Multifidus inhibition in acute low back pain: Recovery is not spontaneous. Proceedings of the 9th Biennial Conference of the Manipulative Physiotherapists Association of Australia, Gold Coast, QLD, 57-60. Lumbo-pelvic stabilisation and low back pain
  1. 25. 
Hodges PW, Richardson CA (1996).  Inefficient muscular stabilisation of the lumbar spine associated with low back pain: A motor control evaluation of transversus abdominis. Spine 21(22): 259-264.


P.Hodges begins his extensive research on TrA and problems in LBP
  1. 26. 
Ng JK-F and Richardson CA (1996). Reliability of electromyographic power spectral analysis of back muscle endurance in healthy subjects. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 77: 259-264. Lumbo-pelvic stabilisation
  1. 27. 
Hodges P, Richardson C, Jull G (1996).  Evaluation of the relationship between the findings of a laboratory and clinical test of the function of transversus abdominis.  Physiotherapy Research International 1(1):30-40. Lumbo-pelvic stabilisation

-   Assessment of TrA

  1. 28. 
Ng JK-F, Richardson CA, Kippers V, Parnianpour M, Bui BH (1996). Clinical applications of power spectral analysis of electromyographic investigations in muscle function. Manual Therapy 1: 99-103 Assessment of muscle fatigue using surface EMG
  1. 29. 
Hides JA, Richardson CA, Jull GA (1996).  Multifidus muscle recovery is not automatic following resolution of acute first episode low level pain.  Spine 21(23):2763-2769. After acute LBP, segmental multifidus does not come back automatically
  1. 30. 
Hides JA, Richardson CA, Jull GA (1996). Multifidus muscle recovery in acute low back pain patients. Proceedings of the Australian Conference of Science and Medicine in Sport, Canberra, 198-199. J. Hides begins extensive research in multifidus dysfunction in LBP
  1. 31. 
Hodges PW, Gandevia SC, Richardson CA (1997).  Contractions of specific abdominal muscles in postural tasks are affected by respiratory manoeuvers.  Journal of Applied Physiology 83:753-760. Beginning of finding the link between TrA and diaphragm
  1. 32. 
Hodges PW, Richardson CA (1997).  Feedforward contraction of transversus abdominis is not influenced by the direction of arm movement.  Experimental Brain Research 114:62-370. TrA providing a stable base for limb movement
  1. 33. 
Hodges PW, Richardson CA (1997).  Contraction of the abdominal muscles associated with movement of the lower limb.  Physical Therapy 77(2):132-142. Link between TrA recruitment and lower limb movement
  1. 34. 
Hodges PW, Richardson CA (1997).  Relationship between limb movement speed and associated contraction of the trunk muscles.  Ergonomics  40:1220-1230. Lumbo-pelvic stabilisation
  1. 35. 
Ng JK-F, Richardson CA, Jull GA (1997). Electromyographic amplitude and frequency changes in the iliocostalis lumborum and multifidus muscles during a trunk holding test. Physical Therapy 77: 954-961. Lumbo-pelvic stabilisation

-   Fatigue studies

  1. 36. 
Hamilton C, Richardson C (1997).  Neue perspektiven su wirbelsauleninstabilitaten und lumbalem kreuzschmerz: Funktion und Dysfunktion der tiefer ruckenmuskeln.  Manuelle Therapie 1:17-24. Lumbo-pelvic stabilisation
  1. 37. 
Hides JA, Jull GA, Richardson CA, Hodges PW (1997).  Lokale Gelenkstabilisatrion: Spezifische Befunderhebung und Ubungen bei lumbalen Ruckenschmerzen.  Manuelle Therapie 1:8-15. Lumbo-pelvic stabilisation
  1. 38. 
Hides JA, Jull GA, Richardson CA, Hodges PW (1997). Local joint stabilisation: Specific assessment and exercises for low back pain. Manual Therapie, 8-15. New methods of exercising and training TrA and lumbar multifidus
  1. 39. 
Hides JA, Richardson CA, Jull GA (1998). Use of real-time ultrasound imaging for feedback in rehabilitation. Manual Therapy 3(3):125-131. Explaining the specific use of imaging for feedback
  1. 40. 
Hodges PW, Richardson CA (1998).  Delayed postural contraction of transversus abdominis in low back pain associated with movement of the lower limb.  Journal of Spinal Disorders 11(1):46-56. Motor control problems with timing of  transversus abdominis in LBP
  1. 41. 
Ng JK-F, Kippers V, Richardson CA (1998). Muscle fibre orientation of abdominal muscles and suggested surface EMG electrode positions. Electromyography and Clinical Neurophysiology 38: 51-58. Defining a method of using EMG to study the abdominal muscles
  1. 42. 
Ng JK-F, Richardson CA, Kippers V, Parnianpour M (1998). Relationship between muscle fiber composition and functional capacity of back muscles in healthy subjects and patients with back pain. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy 27: 389-402. Lumbo-pelvic stabilisation
  1. 43. 
Hides JA, Richardson CA, Jull GA (1998). The lumbar multifidus: A link to Low Back Pain. Proceedings of the 3rd Interdisiplinary World congress on Low Back Pain and Pelvic Pain, Vienna, Austria 117-122 Multifidus inhibition a problem in LBP
  1. 44. 
Jull G, Scott Q, Richardson C, Henry S, Hides J, Hodges P (1998). New concepts for the control of pain in the lumbopelvic region . Proceedings of the 3rd Interdisiplinary World congress on Low Back Pain and Pelvic Pain, Vienna, Austria 128-131. Lumbo-pelvic stabilisation
  1. 45.   
Richardson C, Hides J, Hodges P, Scott Q, Roll S (1998). Non-invasive assessments of deep muscle dysfunction associated with low back pain. Proceedings of the 3rd Interdisiplinary World congress on Low Back Pain and Pelvic Pain, Vienna, Austria 123-127. Non-invasive methods of assessing the function of TrA
  1. 46.   
Richardson C, Jull G, Hodges P, Hides J  Therapeutic Exercise for Spinal Segmental Stabilisation in Low Back Pain. Churchill Livingston, Edinburgh  1999  


Out of print

[Chapter 6 in Appendix 2]

  1. 47. 
Hodges PW, Richardson CA (1999).  Transversus abdominis and the superficial abdominal muscles are controlled independently in a postural task.  Neuroscience Letters 265:91-94. TrA providing a stable base working independently of  superficial abdominals (trunk movement)
  1. 48. 
Hodges PW, Richardson CA (1999).  Altered trunk muscle  recruitment in people with low back pain with upper limb movement at different speeds.  Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 80:1005-1012. Further studies on the dysfunction of TrA in LBP
  1. 49. 
Hides JA, Jull G, Richardson C (2000).  A clinical palpation test to check the activation of the deep stabilising muscles of the spine.  International Sportmedicine Journal  1:(4). Checking TrA wth a ‘palpation’ test
  1. 50.   
Richardson CA (2000).  The muscle designation debate: the experts respond.  Response by Carolyn Richardson.  Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 4(4):235-236. The debate on muscle imbalance and different muscle function
  1. 51. 
Jull GA, Richardson CA (2000).  Motor control problems in spinal pain patients: A new direction for therapeutic exercise.  Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 23(2):115-117. Lumbo-pelvic stabilisation
  1. 52. 
Sapsford RR, Hodges PW, Richardson CA, Cooper DH, Markwell SJ, Jull GA (2000).  Co-activation of the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles during voluntary exercises.  Neurourology and Urodynamics 20(1):31-42. Pelvic floor part of the ‘Core’ muscles
  1. 53. 
Ng JK-F, Richardson CA, Jull GA (2001): Clinical utility of surface EMG: Report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 56: 1421-1422. Correspondence to Editor. Assessment  of muscle function with EMG
  1. 54. 
Ng JK-F, Kippers V, Richardson CA, Parnianpour M (2001): Range of motion and lordosis of the lumbar spine. Reliability of measurement and normative values. Spine 26: 53-60 Assessment methods for spinal posture
  1. 55. 
Hides JA, Jull GA, Richardson CA (2001).  Long-term effects of specific stabilizing exercises for first episode low back pain.  Spine 26: e243-248. Positive effects of specific exercises for the Core muscles in LBP
  1. 56. 
Ng JK-F, Parnianpour M, Richardson CA, Kippers V (2001): Functional roles of abdominal and back muscles during isometric axial rotation of the trunk. Journal of Orthopaedic Research 19: 463-471. Role of superficial trunk muscles in axial rotation
  1. 57.   
Richardson CA (2002) The health of the human skeletal system for weight-bearing against gravity: The role of deloading the musculo-skeletal system in the development of musculo-skeletal injury. Journal of Gravitational Physiology 9 (1): 7-9. Explaining the ‘muscle imbalances’ formed as a result of the removal of Gravity (unloading of the body)
  1. 58. 
Johnston LM, Burns YR, Brauer SG, Richardson CA (2002) Differences in postural control and movement performance during goal directed reaching in children with developmental coordination disorder. Human Movement Science 21: 583-601. Explaining the changes in postural control in children with development disorders
  1. 59. 
Sims KJ, Richardson CA, Brauer SG (2002) Investigation of hip abductor activation in subjects with clinical unilateral hip osteoarthritis. Annals of Rheumatological Disorders 61: 687-692. The changing function of of the hip abductors in OA of the hip
  1. 60. 
Ng JK-F, Richardson CA, Parnianpour M, Kippers V (2002): EMG activity of trunk muscles and torque output during isometric axial rotation exertion: a comparison between back pain patients and matched controls. Journal of Orthopaedic Research 20:112-121. LBP patients have more activation of their superficial abdominal muscles
  1. 61. 
Ng JK-F, Richardson CA, Kippers V, Parnianpour M (2002): Comparison of lumbar range of movement and lumbar lordosis in back pain patients and matched controls. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 34: 109-113. Changes in lumbar posture with LBP patients
  1. 62. 
Ng JK-F, Kippers V, Parnianpour M, Richardson CA (2002): EMG activity normalization for trunk muscles in subjects with and without back pain. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 34: 1082-1086. Standardised methods of assessment of the trunk muscles
  1. 63. 
Ng JK-F, Richardson CA, Parnianpour M, Kippers V (2002): Fatigue-related changes in torque output and electromyographic parameters of trunk muscles during isometric axial rotation exertion. An investigation in patients with back pain and in healthy subjects. Spine 27: 637-646. Superficial oblique abdominal muscles (Myofascial Movement muscles) are less fatiguable in LBP compared to controls
  1. 64. 
Richardson CA, Snijders CJ, Hides JA, Damen L, Pas MS, Storm J (2002): The relationship between the transversely oriented abdominal muscles, sacroiliac joint mechanics and low back pain. Spine 27(4):399-405. TrA contraction (corset) results in increased compression of the SIJs and increasing stability of pelvis
  1. 65. 
Hides JA, Richardson CA (2003): Segmental stabilisation training in lumbo-pelvic pain disorders. New Zealand Journal of Sports Medicine 31(1): 10-18. Lumbo-pelvic stabilisation  training in LBP
  1. 66. 
Ng JK-F, Parnianpour M, Richardson CA, Kippers V (2003): Effects of fatigue on torque output and EMG measures of trunk muscles during isometric axial rotation exertions. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 84: 374-381. Relationship between fatigue and  torque production during trunk twisting
  1. 67. 
Falla DL, Hess S, Richardson C (2003) Evaluation of shoulder internal rotator muscle strength in baseball players with physical signs of gleno-humeral instability. British Journal of Sports Medicine 37: 1-3. Those with glenohumeral joint instability were stronger in Sh. Int. Rot than those with no instability.
  1. 68.    
Richardson C, Hodges P, Hides J Therapeutic Exercise for Lumbopelvic Stabilization: A Motor Control Approach for the treatment and prevention of low back pain, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, New York (2004) Current text
  1. 69.    
Richardson CA, Hides JA, Wilson S, Stanton W, Snijders CJ (2004): Lumbo-pelvic joint protection against antigravity forces: motor control and segmental stiffness assessed with magnetic resonance imaging. Journal of Gravitational Physiology 11 (2) : 119-122. Using MRI –Activation of deep muscle corset decreases in CSA. In LBP increases CSA
  1. 70. 
Fontana TL, Richardson CA, Stanton WR (2005): The effect of weightbearing exercise with low frequency, whole body vibration on lumbosacral proprioception: A pilot study on normal subjects. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 51(4) : 259. WBV (5 minutes) increases lumbopelvic proprioception (i.e. pelvic tilting accuracy) in normal subjects.
  1. 71. 
Hess SA, Richardson CA, Darnell R, Friis P, Lisle D, Meyers P (2005) Timing of Rotator Cuff Activation During Shoulder External Rotation in Throwers With and Without Symptoms of Pain. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy 35: 812-820. Delayed reaction time in subscapularis in throwers with shoulder pain during an external rotation task.
  1. 72. 
Hides J, Wilson S, Stanton W, McMahon S, Keto H, McMahon K, Bryant M, Richardson C (2005): MRI investigation into the function of the transversus abdominis muscle during ‘drawing in’ of the abdominal wall. Spine 31(6) : E175-E178. During the ‘draw in’ the bilateral TrA contract & slide of the fascia measured  – acts like a CORSET
  1. 73. 
Richardson CA, Hides JA, Wilson S, Belavy DL, Stanton W, McCook D, Elmann-Larsen B, Rittweger J, Felsenberg D. MRI measures of the lumbo-pelvic muscles in bedrest and follow-up: Implications for exercise countermeasures in microgravity. Journal of Gravitational Physiology 2005;12(1):117-8. Multifidus vunerable in prolonged bedrest
  1. 74. 
Belavy DL, Richardson CA, Wilson S, Darnell R, Hides J, Toppenberg R, Elmann-Larsen B, Rittweger J, Felsenberg D. Long-term overactivity in the abdominal oblique muscles after 8 weeks bed-rest - possible implications for musculoskeletal health. Journal of Gravitational Physiology 2005;12(1):157-8. Overactive abdominals in prolonged bedrest.
  1. 75. 
Hides J, Wilson S, Stanton W, McMahon S, Keto H, McMahon K, Bryant M, and Richardson C (2006) An MRI Investigation Into the Function of the Transversus Abdominis Muscle During ‘Drawing In’ of the Abdominal Wall. Spine 31 (6) During the ‘draw in’ the bilateral TrA contract & slide of the fascia measured  – acts like a corset
  1. 76. 
Van K, Hides JA, Richardson CA (2006): Use of Real- time Ultrasound Imaging for Biofeedback of Multifidus Muscle Contraction in Healthy Subjects. JOSPT: 36(12) 920-925. Ulltrasound imaging is a useful tool for providing feedback in rehabilitation
  1. 77. 
Pirouzi S, Hides J, Richardson C, Darnell R, Toppenberg R (2006) Low back pain patients demonstrate increased hip extensor muscle activity during standardised submaximal rotation efforts. Spine 31(26) During trunk rotation, LBP had higher output levels in gluteus maximus, hamstrings & erector spinae
  1. 78. 
Belavý DL, Wilson SJ, Richardson CA (2006): Quantification of the timing of continuous modulated muscle activity in a repetitive-movement task. Physiological Measurement; 27: 1143-1150. Development of a new method of measurement for lumbar muscle function
  1. 79. 
Sapsford R.R, Richardson C.A, Stanton W.R. (2006) Sitting Posture affects Pelvic Floor muscle activity in parous women: An Observational study. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy. Vol.52: 219-222. Stretch tall cue (‘stretch tall like a dancer’) increased pelvic floor activity
  1. 80. 
Rittweger J, Belavy DL, Hunek P, Gast U, Boerst H, Feilcke B, Armbrecht G, Blenk T, Mulder E, Schubert H, Richardson C, de Haan A, Stegeman DF, Schiessl H, Felsenberg D. (2006)The Berlin Bed-Rest Study: Maintenance of a highly demanding resistive vibration exercise program during 56 days of strict bed-rest. International Journal of Sports Medicine; 27: 553-9. Description of exercise protocol; used in clinical trials on maintenance of bone and joint health: using axial joint compression of trunk & lower limbs with  Whole Body Vibration
  1. 81. 
Hides JA, Miokovic T, Stanton WR, Belavy D, Richardson C (2007): Intrarater Reliability of Ultrasound Assessment of abdominal Muscle function during an Abdominal Drawing In Task by Normal subjects JOSPT 37(8): 480-486. Reliability of assessment of lumbo-pelvic muscle function
  1. 82. 
Hides JA, Wong I, Wilson S, Belavy D, Richardson CA (2007): Assessment of Abdominal Muscle Function During A Simulated Weight-bearing Task using Ultrasound imaging. JOSPT 37(8):467-471. During a simulated WB task- slowly increasing axial compression to trunk & LL- Core muscles are  activated
  1. 83. 
Belavý DL, Richardson CA, Wilson SJ, Rittweger J, Felsenberg D (2007): Superficial lumbo-pelvic muscle overactivity and decreased co-contraction after 8-weeks of bed-rest. Spine; 32(1): E23-29. After bedrest : increased activity in superficial abdominals & L-P muscles in response to fast LL movt.
  1. 84. 
Hourigan S.R, Nitz J.C, Bauer S.G, O’Neill S, Wong J. Richardson C.A (2007) Positive effects of exercise on falls and fracture risk in osteopenic women. Osteoporos Int  October 2007. Weightbearing and balance exercises reduce risk of fractures
  1. 85. 
Hides JA, Belavý DL, Stanton W, Wilson SJ, Rittweger J, Felsenberg D, Richardson CA (2007): MRI assessment of trunk muscles during prolonged bed rest. Spine; 32(15): 1687-1692. Atropy of multifidus in bedrest – very vunerable to decreased ‘weightbearing’ through the L-P region
  1. 86. 
Belavý DL, Richardson CA, Wilson SJ, Felsenberg D Rittweger J. Tonic to phasic shift of lumbo-pelvic muscle activity during 8-weeks of bed-rest and 6-months follow-up. Journal of Applied Physiology; 2007a; 103(1): 48-54. Tonic to phasic shift of the lumbar muscles after bedrest
  1. 87. 
Hides JA, Miolovic T, Stanton WR, Belavy D. Richardson C. (2007) Intrarater Reliability of Ultrasound Assessment of Abdominal Muscle Function during an Abdominal Drawing In Task by Normal subjects JOSPT 37(8):480-486. Reliability of the clinical test of TrA
  1. 88. 
Hides JA, Wilson S, Stanton W, McMahon S, Sims K, Richardson C (2008): The effect of stabilization training on multifidus cross sectional area among young elite cricketers with low back pain.  JOSPT 38 (3): 101-108. Core activation,  NWB then WB position +movt training leading to increased CSA and decreased pain
  1. 89. 
Hides JA, Stanton W, Freke M, Wilson S, McMahon S, Richardson C (2007):MRI study of the Size, Symmetry and Function of the Trunk Muscles among Elite Cricketers With and Without Low Back Pain.BJSM -published on line 17 Dec Assymetry in sport, especially in bowlers-QL, ES, Multifidus larger- epsilateral side to dominant arm
  1. 90. 
Belavý DL, Hides JA, Wilson SJ, Stanton W, Dimeo FC, Rittweger J, Felsenberg D, Richardson CA (2008) Resisted Simulated Weightbearing Exercise with Whole Body Vibration Reduces Lumbar Spine Deconditioning in Bed-Rest. Spine 33 (5) E121-E131. More attention to spinal posture during training –spinal lengthening and disc area decreased; less multifidus atrophy
  1. 91. 
Sapsford R.R, Richardson C.A, Maher C.F, Hodges P.W (2008) Pelvic Floor Muscle Activity in Different Sitting Postures in Continent and Incontinent Women. Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 89: 1741-1747. More upright sitting postures recruit more pelvic floor resting activity; in both groups.
  1. 92. 
Hides JA, Belavý DL, Cassar L, Williams M, Wilson SJ, Richardson CA (2009) Altered response of the anterolateral abdominal muscles in simulated weightbearing in subjects with low back pain. Eur Spine J 18: 410-418. Simulated WB test-trunk and LL; In LBP – decreased shortening of trA  and increase thickness of IO
  1. 93. 
Grimaldi A, Richardson CA, Durbridge G, Donnelly W, Darnell R, Hides JA (2009). The association between degenerative hip joint pathology and size of the gluteus maximus and TFL muscles: An MRI study Manual Therapy, 14(6) 611-617. Upper Glut.Max. ( hip abductor) &TFL  unaffected by pathology; while lower Glut.Max (hip extensor) shows atrophy
  1. 94. 
Grimaldi AM, Richardson CA, Stanton WR, Durbridge G, Donnelly W, Hides JA (2009). The association between degenerative hip joint pathology and size of the gluteus medius, gluteus minimus and piriformis muscles. Manual Therapy. 14(6): 605-10. As above for upper Glut.Max &TFL , while Glut.Med/min & piriformis show atrophy in advanced OA
  1. 95. 
Belavý D, Miokovic T, Armbrecht G, Richardson C, Rittweger J, Felsenberg D, (2009) Differential Atrophy of lower-limb musculature during prolonged bed-rest. European Journal of Applied Physiology 2009b; 107(4):489-499. Add Magnus> Add longus

Med Gastros>Lat Gastroc

Vasti > RF (need closed chain exercise)

+ atrophy hamstrings

  1. 96. 
BelavýDL, Mehnert A, Wilson S, Richardson CA. Analysis of burst and tonic electromyography simulation and comparison  of novel morphological and linear envelope approaches. Journal of  Electromyography and Kinesiology 2009a; 19(1): 10-21 Novel approach of analysing the tonic and phasic components of the EMG signal- used for CNS control in repetitive movt. tasks
  1. 97. 
Mendis M, Hides J, Wilson S, Grimaldi A, Belavy D, Stanton W, Felsenberg D, Rittweger J, Richardson C (2009) Effect of prolonged bedrest on the anterior hip muscles. Gait and Posture 30 (4): 533-537. Muscle imbalance develops when effect of Gravity minimised (Iliopsoas & Sartorius decreased at hip)
  1. 98. 
Belavý DL, Ng JK-F, Wilson SJ, Ambrecht G, Stegmen D,  Rittweger J, Felsenberg D, Richardson CA,(2010) Influence of prolonged bedrest on spectral and temporal electromyographic  motor control characteristics of the superficial lumbo-pelvic musculature. Journal of  Electromyography and Kinesiology 20: 170-179. Increased median frequency in lumbar ES (i.e.fatique) but not thoracic ES  i.e. robust – persists up to one year
  1. 99. 
Belavý DL, Armbrecht G, Gast U, Richardson C.A, Hides JA Felsenberg D, Countermeasures against lumbar spine deconditioning in prolonged bedrest: resistive exercise with and without whole body vibration. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2010; 109: 1801-1811. Reduction in CSA loss in M,ES, QL & increase in psoas. Little evidence for WBV over  high load ex.

No change disc/spinal shape

  1. 100.   
Hides JA, Lambrecht G, Richardson CA, Stanton WR, Armbrecht G, Pruett C, Danmann V, Felsenberg D, Belavy DL. (2011) The effects of Rehabilitation on the muscles of the trunk following prolonged bedrest. European Spine Journal ; 20: 808-818 Trunk flexor & general conditioning verses motor control. Both groups CSA mult.increased but strength group = psoas increased
  1. 101.   
Belavý  DL, Armbrecht G, Richardson C.A, Felsenberg D, Hides JA, Muscle atrophy and changes in spinal Morphology: Is the spine vunerable after prolonged bedrest? Spine 2011: 36(2):137-45. No effect of countermeasures on changes in spinal disc morphology, spinal length or shape
  1. 102.   
Pool-Goudzwaard AL, Belavy DL, Hides JA, Richardson CA, Snijders CJ  (2012) Low back pain in microgravity – a self- limiting disease? (submitted for publication). Overview of case studies in low back pain developing in microgravity
  1. 103.   
Beall P, Stanton W, Smith M, Richardson C, Hides J (2013)

Functional recruitment of the Adductor muscles during a standardised asymmetric weight-bearing task (submitted for publication)


Adductor magnus but not adductor longus was activated during a simulated weightbearing task (leg press)